It has been one the biggest changes to TV ever. We've been waiting for it for years, and now, finally, it has arrived. For the first time, a large selection of stations are available terrestrially, many of them requiring a subscription. But what does this mean to the viewer?
There is a widespread ignorance and apathy about the new services, and their consequences for the viewing public at large. Below is an introduction to the services available:
What is Digital TV?
Before the advent of Digital TV, viewers got their pictures in one of three ways. Terrestrial TV is broadcast from several hundred transmitter sites across the country and is recieved via a normal, roof-top or set-top aerial. Satellite TV was established in the UK in the late eighties, dominated by Sky Television. Cable TV is provided by a range of companies across the country, but there is a physical line from the cable company to every house, providing TV channels and a telephone service.
Digital TV is already available on each of these media, eventually replacing the analogue methods completely. Analogue Cable will probably be discontinued in the next year or so. Sky will stop its analogue services around the same time and is already cutting back on its channels. Analogue terrestrial will be the biggest problem as coverage will have to be vastly increased before switch-off is considered. One way to increase coverage would be to close down some transmitters early, but this is unlikely to happen in the next few years. Work is still going on to convert the remaining analogue transmitters to tranmit Nicam Stereo, so there looks to be no cutting back in the analogue terrestrial coverage just yet. Places like Wales will be particularly hard to cover satisfactorally. With, one channel is broadcast on a particular frequency. With Digital, MPEG-2 compression methods are used to broadcast several channels on one frequency. As well as this, there are additional services. Sky has a good EPG - comprehensive listings for the coming days. OnDigital has only Now and Next programme info. Both have recently launched e-mail access. Digital Text services are available on digital terrestrial and are promised soon from Sky.
Receiving the New Services
The simplest way to receive Digital TV is a via a conventional TV and a terrestrial set-top box. OnDigital will 'rent' a set-top, free of charge, box to anyone that wants one, as long as they subscribe for a minimum period of 12 months and for as long as they do so. The minimum subscription is £6.99 per month which gives you one out of a possible 12 'Primary' Channels. Integrated TVs are also available for sale, and the price differential between them and terrestrial recivers is closing.
For Digital reception via satellite, a dish along with a satellite set-top box is required. SkyDigital are giving away free set-top boxes to anyone that is interested, although the do charge a £40 connection fee or £100 if you do not take out an initial subscription.
There is also Digital on Cable in some parts of the country as well.
One big difference between SkyDigital and OnDigital, is that the latter is not providing conventional teletext services. One of the reasons given that teletext was not available via OnDigital was that Digital Text would be soon available. This took much longer than expected and is still not available via most makes of box. Another reason was probably due to the cost of adding features to the box to cope with Teletext. The Sky Digibox has to make sure the teletext data is relayed to the TV in the correct aspect ratio so that the TV can decode it. From what I've heard this isn't always successful, resulting in text dropouts from time to time.
But however it is transmitted or received, the fact is that digital TV has arrived. TV companies have been gearing up for months, years even.
One of BBC Northern Ireland's Digital TV suites is shown left, with David Olver in the Hot Seat. It is normally used to broadcast BBC ONE. The BBC's digital broadcasting areas are much more hi-tech than their analogue counterparts, with a much higher level of automation. Digital suites play most idents and slides directly off computer, instead of analogue which still uses laserdisc, or, due to a laserdisc shortage, tape!
Here is a selection of the content providers in digital TV:
BBC: The oldest broadcaster etc etc provides old favourites and new programming. BBC ONE and TWO are available in widescreen versions, though they do not have full regional coverage yet (While BBC ONE is broadcasting most regional programmes on analogue terrestrial, BBC TWO digital isn't regional at all). BBC ONE via satellite has only regional variations in the nations of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
Gaps produced by regional programming are filled by either UK Today (a service from News 24 consisting mostly of regional stories from across the country) or BBC South-East programmes such as 'First Sight' or 'Around Westminster'. The full regional service should be available on terrestrial soon, though there may not be any increase in regional broadcasting on satellite for the moment due to cost.
The BBC has other services such as News 24 (download theme music in stereo), which is also available on analogue cable, and BBC CHOICE which is not. The latter has four versions, for the four parts of the UK though they usually only differ for two hours each evening. All versions are available on satellite, though via terrestrial only the 'local' version is available. A recent channel revamp has resulted in the number of programmes being dropped and more repeats. There are also repeats of programmes from BBC ONE and TWO. A children's service is shown on a loop from 6 in the morning, finishing 6pm or 7pm at weekends. BBC KNOWLEDGE is an educational channel, showing programmes from 8am till around midnight, though programmes are on a 3 hour loop. The digital terrestrial version finishes at midday at the weekend as it will share the channel with a pay-per-view service from SDN who owns the multiplex that BBC KNOWLEDGE uses.
The BBC also have a Digital Text service and the BBC PARLIAMENT channel, though only in sound on Digital Terrestrial due to bandwidth restrictions. All channls but BBC KNOWLEDGE are broadcast on the BBC's own multiplex which it is entitles to be law.
The BBC also operates several commercial subscription channels, under the UKTV brand. Although operated from Television Centre like other BBC Channels, they are not branded as such, but as UK Gold, UK Play and so on. To enable the BBC to enter the commercial market, it has created a commercial arm, BBC Worldwide, and these channels are operated in conjunction with Flextech. Some of the Channels are available on OnDigital, though for the full range, you need Sky.
ITV share a multiplex with Channel four and both channels are identical to their analogue counterparts in programming - widescreen broadcasting is available for a growing number of programmes. The extra channels are ITV2 which covers most ITV regions. The channel consists of repeats from ITV and new programming. It generally broadcasts from 4pm to after midnight, though there is a 9.25am start in the morning. The exceptions to coverage are S2 in the Scottish and Grampian regions, usually providing different programming to ITV2, though of a similar type. TV YOU is the version in Northern Ireland, though due to the small number of people able to receive the channel, it currently does not carry any advertising or continuity. ITV2's programmes are used mostly, though part of the schedules are made up from repeats of 80's Ulster Television shows.
Channel Four has a premium film channel (£6/month) called Film Four and an ocasional channel called 4 extra, which is used to provide extended coverage of some sports programmes. Teletext Ltd also has a service on this multiplex. Coming soon are an ITN News channel, ITV Gold and Kids channels, and E4, and Entertainment channel. Where exactly all these extra channels will go on terrestrial is beyond me.
S4C/SDN: SDN is a collaberation between S4C, the Welsh Fourth Channel and United News and Media, which operates three ITV companies in the South of England and Wales. There are some services which must be carried on SDN's multiplex, such as Channel 5 across the UK, S4C Digidol, S4C2 in Wales and TeleG in Scotland.
I must say I am surprised however, that there is no Irish programming in Northern Ireland. Whilst I do not speak the language myself, there are apparently more Irish speakers in NI than Scottish speakers in Scotland, so it would make sense to have something. The government has said that it will provide the Republic's Irish language channel TG4 at some stage, though I expect it will not be in its current form. Due to the fact that the channel now includes much English-language programming (such as Doctor Who), I suspect they may strip this out when showing it north of the border to make it primarily an Irish channel.
But back to the present situation. S4C Digidol is entirely Welsh-language, consisting of S4C analogue's Welsh-language programmes, mostly from the BBC and HTV Wales. S4C2 is Welsh Parliamentary coverage in English and Welsh from the BBC. The remaining bandwidth is taken up by OnRequest, a collaberation between OnDigital and SDN. Channel 5 leases its unused bandwidth to SDN at present, though this may change if and when C5 launch their movie channel. Film Four it won't be. SDN has just started to provide Pay-Per-View Movies under the OnRequest banner.
BSkyB: Where do I start?! As well as having its own service, SkyDigital which provides viewers with a large number of channels, it also provides channels for OnDigital, digital and analogue cable and its own analogue satellite service. The most popular channel is Sky One which provides a mixture of popular American imports and its own limited programming, made for it by independent production companies such as LWT. Its channels are uplinked to the Astra 2A satellite, and can be received by a "mini-dish" using a 'digibox' to decode the MPEG-2 transmissions into a watchable picture. The dish and box are 'free', although installation of both cost £40 if you subscribe for a year, £100 if you don't.
OnDigital: Ondigital operates by virtue of bidding for, and winning a goverment franchise to operate three multiplexes. Its programmes come from Sky, OnDigital's owners (Granada and Carlton), UKTV (BBC/Flextech), and Discovery. The Carlton and Discovery channels are not available on Sky, though it is worth pointing out that with OnDigital, you get Dicovery Kids during the day and Discovery Wings at night.
This is only an introduction to digital - for more information, see one of the following sites:
Digital TV - Beyond The Hype
An excellant site from Andrew Wiseman. Though slightly out of date (hey, I'm one to talk!), it does a good job in detailing the various digital services.
This site is a valuable resource for OnDigital customers, providing regular News and Gossip about the service.
DTG - The Digital Television Group
An umbrella body representing many Digital Broadcasters. Has a useful News section and DTT reception predictor.
Background Information and FAQs on the BBC's Digital Services.
The Main Digital Terrestrial Broadcaster in the UK.
Sky's Dominance in Multi-channel TV continues into the digital age.
Digital TV in Northern Ireland.
One of the UK's leading Cable Companies' Digital pages.
News about Multichannel TV from all over the UK all under one roof. Has sections on OnDigital, Sky, the Cable Companies and more.
Digital TV in Ireland
The Irish Republic is getting a DTT service... sometime! See this site for information on what is promised.
Irish Cable and Digital Guide
A superb site, giving information on the Multichannel services available in Ireland.